Imaging india,we envision the Taj Mahal’s serene white marble dome glowing in the morning mists,and we see a vivid profusion of hindu deities adorning an elaborate temple tower.
Saffron and silver,pearls and ivory,gold and vermilion all suggest the sumptuous pleasure of india.images of devout believers immersing themselves in dawn-lit water or kneeling on thin prayer rug over hard marble remind us the spirituality that has distinguished the subcontinent for untold centuries.parched deserts and palm fringed beaches,verdant fields and rugged mountain passes,cooling breezes and hot winds all imply the varied nature of india’s landscape and climate.Everywhere amid this kaleidoscopic setting,there are curves and circles, inviting and including,alluring and enclosing.indian art features spirals and curvaceous lines,vines and tendrils,the globe of the sun, benevolent serpents,round figured goddess, circular armlets, oval gemstones, arches and domes,circles of dancers, round haloed deities,curling elephant trunks,crescent moons and spiraling conch shells.these representations reflect all encompassing nature of Indian culture,which has integrated into its panoply of customs, philosophies,and material influences from every corner of the earth to from a uniquely rich and splendid civilization.
India’s social complexity and cultural diversity are legendry. The nation’s population is the second largest in the incredible mosaic of more than 860 millions inhabitants one sixth of the human speak fifteen recognized state languages and hundred of lesser languages and dialects and live in twenty five states and seven territories flung across a land the size of continental western Europe. A multitude of ethnic groups,classes,and physical types abound in this great country,the world’s largest democracy. India also has social problems of great magnitude affecting the lives of hundreds of millions of people.
Delhi: the capital of world’s largest democratic nation rings with political debate,in the halls of parliament ,in the press,in the streets. Delhi is the active political centre of a lively nation-parades.demonstrations,and the ordinary hustle and bustle of government business are all around .splendidly uniformed guards and military officers are a common sight.
Actually delhi is not a single city. There has beed a series of seven royal capitals here,capped off by present day old delhi and new delhi, majestic halves of the modern metropolis most Indian called simply delhi.
An ancient settlement ,indraprastha,on the bank of jamuna river,has left archaeological remains dating to the third fourth century B.C. some believe this town was founded by the pandava brothers,mythical heros the epic mahabharta.,hindu and then muslim rulers build a grand sequence of structures to commemorate their around the delhi region stand the imposing remnants of walls,for ts,arches,towers,palaces and tombs,each bearing testimony to human effort and the people of modern delhi,while traveling,work or school,it is usual to pass the structures built many centuries history is part of everyday life.
A soaring tower of early muslim victory,the qutub minar,attracts many visitors. Impressively ornate,its construction was begun in the twelfth century.beautiful calligraphy adorns the adjacent even these antique structures are young compared with the nearby fifth century iron pillar dating from the gupta metal is of exceptional purity and has never delhi Zoo is built near the site of purana qila,or old fort,dating from the mid sixteenth century. Happy school children and cheerful families on outings gaze at caged tigers not far from the old sand stone tower where mughal emperor humayan struck his head died. Nearby is his tomb,a fine example of early mughal architecture. the elements in its design. A short building graced by high arched entrances and a point dome were later refined and reshaped into the magnificence of Agra’s Taj Mahal.
Of all of delhi’s time worn monuments,those built during the reign of the mughal emperor shah are the most impressive.looming over the old city are the imposing crenelated russet sandstone walls of the red fort.within are the delicate white marble pearl mosque and the onceresplendent hall of private audience ,where the emperor sat in splendor upon the magnificent peacock throne.thois master piece of fine gems and gold was carted off to Persia,along with an enormous amount of fabulous loot,by the plundering nadir shah in 1739.today one finds only the inscription of a famous Persian couplet to invoke past glories.
On Jan 26 of every year, the world’s greatest parade proceeds down rajpath,new delhi grand royal evnue,from the imposing secretariat building to the triumph arch,india gate. To celebrate republic day,folk dancers from every state, marching soldiers ,uniformed students,cultural floats,gold caparisoned elephants,tanks,jet planes parade before the gigantic crowd of city fold and villagers.